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Oncology Nurses provide care to cancer patients, as well as those who are at risk of getting the disease, by monitoring patients' conditions, prescribing medications to them, and administering chemotherapy and other treatments. If someone is curious as to what is an oncology nurse, he or she may be interested to know that this particular nurse works with cancer patients. Part of the oncology nurse job description includes running chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and other treatments used for oncology. The oncology nurse is often the person who gives a patient information about medications and addresses any issues with the patient’s health concerns. The oncology nursing job description also includes working with the oncologist, running certain diagnostics, and reading test results. Generally, the oncology nursing job description also includes answering questions from the patients.

  • Track 1-1

The most significant clinical role of nurse practitioners relates to their professional efficacy and autonomy in practice. They can diagnose, treat, prescribe medications (though their role in this capacity is limited in some U.S. states), order diagnostic testing, and refer patients to other healthcare professionals. Nurse practitioners engage in evidence-based practice and bring the framework of prevention, early intervention, and patient-family health education into their work. In the United States and other countries, nurse practitioners have a specific license for practice. In the United States, most such licenses are granted and supervised by a state’s board of nursing. This licensing distinguishes nurse practitioners from physicians’ assistants, who typically practice under direct supervision of physicians and whose practices are authorized by a state’s board of medicine.

Nurse practitioners are prepared at the master’s level or beyond. The educational programs are designed to make the graduate eligible for certification as a nurse practitioner in a specific area, such as care of families, children, or adults, in psychiatry, or in women’s health. Certification is gained by completing the requisite educational program and passing an examination offered by specific certifying bodies. These entities are generally associated with a specific practice, such as midwifery. A significant educational requirement is actual practice under the close supervision of a licensed and certified nurse practitioner or a physician. Four hundred or more hours of such practice are required. Some specialties require additional training, such as working with a minimum number of mothers in childbirth to qualify in midwifery.

Wound care nurses utilize a variety of techniques to assess, treat, and care for patients with wounds. This includes wound debridement, cleaning, bandaging, and working with the doctor and care team to determine if other treatments like surgery or antibiotics are necessary. IF A WOUND CARE NURSE is not available, the clinical nurse may be the first caregiver to assess changes in a patient's skin. Managing these changes, including wounds, can be challenging, as patients present with diverse disorders and tissue damage can range from superficial to deep. But by applying a few basic principles, starting with a skin and wound assessment, the nurse can simplify the process and determine an appropriate treatment plan. This article provides practical guidelines that any nurse can implement.

  • Anatomic location. Location can provide information regarding possible causes of the wound. For example, a wound over the sacral area in a bedbound or immobile patient could be a pressure injury, a wound in a lower extremity with accompanying edema could be a venous ulcer, and a wound on the plantar surface of the foot may be a neuropathic ulcer.
  • Degree of tissue damage. Determining the degree of tissue damage in a wound will help to guide the care plan and will provide some information regarding the healing trajectory. Wounds can be described as partial thickness, with damage limited to the epidermal and/or dermal layers, or full thickness with damage evident in the subcutaneous layers and below (see Skin anatomy). For pressure injuries, the staging classification defined by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) is used to describe the appearance of the wound and the extent of tissue damage 
  • Type of tissue in the wound. Tissue in the wound bed can be described as viable or nonviable. Viable tissue can appear beefy red as with granulation tissue, or light pink in the case of new epithelial tissue. In contrast, the appearance nonviable or necrotic tissue varies: Eschar may be black, brown, or tan; fibrin slough is described as stringy or adherent and yellow in color.

Viral hepatitis, influenza, and tuberculosis (TB) remain among the leading causes of illness and death in the United States and account for substantial spending on the related consequences of infection. The infectious disease public health infrastructure, which carries out disease surveillance.Healthcare workers (HCWs) are occupationally exposed to a variety of infectious diseases during the performance of their duties. The delivery of healthcare services requires a broad range of workers, such as physicians, nurses, technicians, clinical laboratory workers, first responders, building maintenance, security and administrative personnel, social workers, food service, housekeeping, and mortuary personnel. Moreover, these workers can be found in a variety of workplace settings, including hospitals, nursing care facilities, outpatient clinics (e.g., medical and dental offices, and occupational health clinics), ambulatory care centers, and emergency response settings. The diversity among HCWs and their workplaces makes occupational exposure to infectious diseases especially challenging. For example, not all workers in the same healthcare facility, not all individuals with the same job title, and not all healthcare facilities will be at equal risk of occupational exposure to infectious agents.

The primary routes of infectious disease transmission in U.S. healthcare settings are contact, droplet, and airborne. Contact transmission can be sub-divided into direct and indirect contact. Direct contact transmission involves the transfer of infectious agents to a susceptible individual through physical contact with an infected individual (e.g., direct skin-to-skin contact). Indirect contact transmission occurs when infectious agents are transferred to a susceptible individual when the individual makes physical contact with contaminated items and surfaces (e.g., door knobs, patient-care instruments or equipment, bed rails, examination table). Two examples of contact transmissible infectious agents include Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE).

Nursing education focuses on educating health care people about effective ways to deliver the health care to patients. It educates nurses about how to administer different medicines, to examine patient and to deliver best services to patients.

The aim of nursing education is a development of the nursing profession. One way to promote development is to clarify the professional role. The role definition for nursing is mostly transmitted through tacit knowledge. The professional development of the nursing profession requires a clear and well-defined nurse role. Stated goals of professional programs for nursing do not include the entire body of tacit knowledge. The overall development requires recognition of a professional status together with a clear and well-defined role.


The universality of childbirth makes the practice of midwifery a cultural touchstone, as seen in historic textual and pictorial references to midwives attending births. Midwives in a community occupied many positions along a spectrum of social acceptability, from the well respected to the marginalized. Where midwifery was held in high regard, the practice offered elevated status for the midwife and her family. Where midwifery had a relatively low community status, midwives’ specialized medical knowledge and contact with visceral fluids relegated them to the lowest castes and, as some historians believe, vulnerable to persecution as witches. Some of the earliest laws guiding the practice of midwifery appeared in 15th-century France and were instituted in part to reduce what was believed to be the practice of witchcraft among midwives. Later laws dismissed witchcraft and focused solely on the practice of midwifery. Some of the first such laws included those instituted in 17th-century London, where midwives were licensed by the Church of England, and licensing in Britain was made more stringent by the Midwife Act of 1902. In the 19th century, midwife licensing laws were introduced in AustriaNorway, and Sweden.

As a nurse practitioner, you fall into a specialized nursing category, known as the advanced practice registered nurse (APRN). Professionals in this category hold advanced degrees, usually a master’s or even a doctorate in the nursing field.

In contrast to earning your ASN, which takes up to 24 months, earning a doctorate in nursing can take up to nine years, with three years being the minimum. A nurse practitioner is a specialized nurse who has earned their advanced (master’s or doctorate) nursing degree. If you plan to become an NP, you will be a licensed healthcare provider. In this profession, you must hold a license from your state to practice nursing in your chosen specialization. You will work in a stressful, fast-paced environment, often in hospital settings. You may spend time working in an urgent care center to provide care to emergency patients. You will have to express compassion and empathy to your patients, as they are hurting, feeling ill, and likely to be scared.

More meaningful opportunities exist now than ever in the field of pediatrics. With just under 4 million babies born in the United States in 2017 according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and almost a half-million born premature, pediatric nurses are in high demand. Children can benefit greatly from the valuable services of experienced pediatric nurse practitioners who make sure newborns and young children stay healthy during their most vulnerable years.

Healthcare itself is a booming field, with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) anticipating 31% growth for the nursing field as a whole from 2016 to 2026. The future of pediatrics will leverage this growth, along with enhanced technology, to lower child mortality rates and improve the overall health of babies born premature. In addition, an increased focus on mental health in the medical field will support children as they develop toward adulthood.



Like psychiatric nurses, mental health nurses work closely with patients who have mental health issues. They are experts in assessing, diagnosing, and treating psychiatric problems. Mental health nurses work as part of a team to provide total medical care for patients. Psychiatric nursing or mental health nursing is the appointed position of a nurse that specialises in mental health, and cares for people of all ages experiencing mental illnesses or distress. These include: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, suicidal thoughts, psychosis, paranoia, and self-harm.

Nurses in this area receive specific training in psychological therapies, building a therapeutic alliance, dealing with challenging behaviour, and the administration of psychiatric medication.

In most countries, a psychiatric nurse will have to attain a bachelor's degree in nursing to become a Registered Nurse (RN), and specialise in mental health. Degrees vary in different countries, and are governed by country-specific regulations. In the United States one can become a RN, and a psychiatric nurse, by completing either a diploma program, an associates (ASN) degree, or a bachelors (BSN) degree.

Mental health nurses can work in a variety of services, including: Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), Acute Medical Units (AMUs), Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs), and Community Mental Health Services (CMHS).



the branch of physiology and medicine which deals with the functions and diseases specific to women and girls, especially those affecting the reproductive system. Obstetrics and Gynaecology nursing are two related fields of nursing where the practitioners deal with the reproductive health of women. They help women during pregnancy, labor and childbirth, as well as women with health issues with their reproductive system. While OBST. here stands for Obstetrics, Gynae stands for Gynaecology, thus these two terms have been used in short but that doesn't make the course different from M.Sc. (Obstetrics & Gynaecology Nursing) or M.Sc. (Obstetrical & Gynaecological Nursing) or M.Sc. (OBG Nursing). The course covers women’s reproductive health, from when menstruation begins, through pregnancy, childbirth, and through menopause. Gynecology nurses can also treat women who suffer from disorders or illnesses affecting their reproductive systems, such as cancer, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted diseases. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Nursing is one among the six departments of Faculty of Nursing endowed with the infrastructure required to learn the full spectrum of Obstetrics and Gynaecology nursing care for both the undergraduate and postgraduate students. Nursing Curriculum meet the norms set by the Indian Nursing Council (INC). Experienced nursing faculty members with doctoral qualification are an added strength to the department. Faculty and student actively involving in rendering nursing care to the obstetrics and gynaecological needs of the women and newborn.




Critical care nursing is the field of nursing with a focus on the utmost care of the critically ill or unstable patients following extensive injury, surgery or life threatening diseases.[1] Critical care nurses can be found working in a wide variety of environments and specialties, such as general intensive care units, medical intensive care units, surgical intensive care units, trauma intensive care units, coronary care units, cardiothoracic intensive care units, burns unit, paediatrics and some trauma center emergency departments. These specialists generally take care of critically ill patients who require mechanical ventilation by way of endotracheal intubation and/or titratable vasoactive intravenous medications. Critical care nurses are also known as ICU nurses. They treat patients who are acutely ill and unstable requiring more frequent nursing assessments and the utilization of life sustaining technology and drugs. Although many ICU patients have chronic health issues, patients are in the ICU for an acute pathology or an exacerbation of a chronic pathology. ICU nurses apply their specialized knowledge base to care for and maintain the life support of critically ill patients who are often on the verge of death. On a day-to-day basis a critical care nurse will commonly, "perform assessments of critical conditions, give intensive and intervention, advocate for their patients, and operate/maintain life support systems which include mechanical ventilation via endotracheal, tracheal, or nasotracheal intubation, and titration of continuous vasoactive intravenous medications in order to maintain a " mean arterial pressure that ensures adequate organ and tissue perfusion.

The anatomic structure and physiologic function of the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, neurologic and gastrointestinal systems are reviewed. In emergency nursing anatomy and physiology are integrated into the health history and physical assessment findings of the adult and pediatric emergency clients. Medical math and calculations, professionalism and interdisciplinary teamwork in relation to ER clients is examined. Critical care nursing integrates theory and application of clinical judgement related to specific disorders common to the critical care along with rare but life-threatening situations. Pathophysiology, relevant assessment findings, prioritization of problems, appropriate interventions and management; and pharmacological and technological interventions are discussed.


A surgical nurse, also referred to as a theatre nurse or scrub nurse, specializes in perioperative care, providing care to patients before, during and after surgery. To become a theatre nurse, Registered Nurses or Enrolled Nurses must complete extra training. There are different speciality areas that theatre nurses can focus in depending on which areas they are interested in.

There are many different phases during surgery where the theatre nurse is needed to support and assist the patient, surgeons, surgical technicians, nurse anaesthetists and nurse practitioners. Pre-operative, the nurse must help to prepare the patient and operating room for the surgery. During the surgery, they assist the anaesthetist and surgeons when they are needed. The last phase is post-operative, enduring that the patients are provided with suitable care and treatments.

People who want to become surgical nurses attend nursing school and specialize in surgical nursing. They are often required to pass examinations administered by the government or by nursing certification boards before being allowed to work as nurses, and they may also be expected to attend periodic continuing education classes so that they keep up with developments in the nursing field.[citation needed]

Surgical patients (those who have undergone a minor or major surgical procedure) are nursed on different wards to medical patients in the UK and Australia. Nursing practice on surgical wards differs from that of medical wards. Surgical nurses are responsible for approximately six patients, depending on the nature of the surgical ward. Intensive Care and High-Dependency units usually have one to two nurses per patient. There are many different phases during surgery where the theatre nurse is needed to support and assist the patient, surgeons, surgical technicians, nurse anaesthetists and nurse practitioners. Pre-operative, the nurse must help to prepare the patient and operating room for the surgery. During the surgery, they assist the anaesthetist and surgeons when they are needed



Pharmacology is the study of how a drug works on the body, its side effects on the body, and the way the body uses the drug. Most nursing students find pharmacology a tough course because you are required to know the name, side effects, nursing interventions, and the way the body uses the drug in such a short amount of time.Nursing and Pharmacology Pharmacology is the study of the actions of drugs, incorporating knowledge from other interrelated sciences, such as pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics. Knowledge from the various pharmaco-logic classes enables the nurse to understand how drugs work in the body, to achieve the therapeutic effects.

Pharmacology is the study of drugs - how they interact with other molecules in the body and how they affect the body. This field of study can be broken down into two smaller pieces: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These are the two main areas of pharmacology dedicated to providing a comprehensive picture of the safety and action of a medication.



Gerontological nursing deals with the wide variety of health problems, a majority of which are chronic. This includes dementia, hearing and vision impairment, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Geriatric nurses work in various different establishments from nursing homes to hospitals and even patients homes. Gerontological nursing is the specialty of nursing pertaining to older adults.[1] Gerontological nurses work in collaboration with older adults, their families, and communities to support healthy aging, maximum functioning, and quality of life.[2] The term gerontological nursing, which replaced the term geriatric nursing in the 1970s, is seen as being more consistent with the specialty's broader focus on health and wellness, in addition to illness.[3][4]

Gerontological nursing is important to meet the health needs of an aging population.[3] Due to longer life expectancy and declining fertility rates, the proportion of the population that is considered old is increasing.[5] Between 2000 and 2050, the number of people in the world who are over age 60 is predicted increase from 605 million to 2 billion.[6] The proportion of older adults is already high and continuing to increase in more developed countries. In 2010, seniors (aged 65 and older) made up 13% and 23% of the populations of the US and Japan, respectively. By 2050, these proportions will increase to 21% and 36%. It is the specialty of nursing pertaining to older adults. Gerontological nurses work in collaboration with older adults, their families, and communities to support healthy aging, maximum functioning, and quality of life. Gerontological Nursing contributes to and often leads the interdisciplinary and multi-agency care of older people. It may be practised in a variety of settings although it is most likely to be developed within services dedicated to the care of older people.



Nursing informatics "is the specialty that integrates nursing science with multiple information and analytical sciences to identify, define, manage and communicate data, information, knowledge and wisdom in nursing practice." Nurse informaticists work to develop communication and information technologies in health care. They also serve as educators, researchers, software engineers, and chief nursing officers. Using the \"building blocks\" listed above, they help develop evidence-based policies and procedures for organizations. Nursing Informatics is the "science and practice (that) integrates nursing, its information and knowledge, with information and communication technologies to promote the health of people, families, and communities worldwide." (adapted from IMIA Special Interest Group on Nursing Informatics 2009). The application of nursing informatics knowledge is empowering for all healthcare practitioners in achieving patient centered care.

Nurse informaticians work as developers of communication and information technologies, educators, researchers, chief nursing officers, chief information officers, software engineers, implementation consultants, policy developers, and business owners, to advance healthcare. Core areas of work include:

  • Concept representation and standards to support evidence-based practice, research, and education

  • Data and communication standards to build an interoperable national data infrastructure

  • Research methodologies to disseminate new knowledge into practice

  • Information presentation and retrieval approaches to support safe patient centered care

  • Information and communication technologies to address inter-professional work flow needs across all care venues

  • Vision and management for the development, design, and implementation of communication and information technology

  • Definition of healthcare policy to advance the public’s health

AMIA’s Nursing Informatics Working Group serves as the United States’ representative to the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Nursing Informatics Special Interest Group.



Oral care or mouth care is one of the most basic nursing activities. Keeping the mouth and teeth clean will protect a patient’s oral health and allow quicker recovery by preventing infections. The patient is unconscious, oral care will be needed more frequently. Unconscious patients usually breathe through the mouth, causing secretions to dry.

Palliative care, also known as supportive care, helps people with serious illnesses feel more comfortable. Palliative care can help relieve pain and treat side effects as people go through disease treatment or hospice care at the end of life. Palliative dental care can be crucial for patients fighting cancer or other diseases because they can have unique and troublesome dental issues. Read more about palliative dental care so you can prepare for a loved one who may need it someday. Unfortunately, people receiving treatment for cancer or other serious illnesses may experience unpleasant or painful side effects. Dentists and dental hygienists treat these side effects to relieve this discomfort and anxiety during an already stressful time. Palliative care physicians can refer a family to a dentist, or the patient's dentist may create a new care plan that supplements other palliative care treatments.